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Translation of "Erhöhung des Lebensstandards" in English
Enlargement and Social Security I will now discuss the implications of enlargement for the three dimensions of the ESM in more detail. Although there are rather clear trends, the actual size of the effects depends on the accuracy of the forecasts. If the quantitative forecasts on trade and FDI are correct, the amount of additional pressure placed on the social security systems by the admission of the CEE countries to the EU seems to be minor, in particular in comparison to the volume of social redistribution.
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To the extent that rising trade indeed implies rising employment in both the EU and the CEEC, the pressure on unemployment insurance funds may even decline. However, if the caveats mentioned above are relevant and relocation becomes a major issue, unemployment may strike the industries affected in EU countries at least for a transitory period, thereby increasing the need for a social cushion under the condition of limited budgets.
Traduzione Inglese-Tedesco per "lower"
While the migration of workers to the EU is not expected to result in direct challenges to the social security system per se because eligibility is dependent on a certain period of paid employment, at least in the countries currently most affected by migration, the low-wage orientation of the immigrants is argued to pose a challenge to the welfare systems. Assuming that the essence of the welfare state is redistribution from the rich to the poor, low-wage workers are expected to benefit most from welfare transfers.
While contributing comparatively little to taxes and social insurance systems, low-income workers profit from supplementary support, free schooling, full health care at lower rates, public housing, and tax-financed infrastructure.
Hence, it is argued, the size of net social transfers to low-income workers will become a prime determinant when migrants partnersuche religion their country of destination, thereby placing pressure on these transfers.
According to this logic, low-income migrants are thought to prefer countries with comparatively generous systems of redistribution, while those who are called upon to finance the transfer payments will leave those countries, thereby threatening the funding of the transfer system. Since preventing migration will harm the potential welfare gains induced by an improved factor allocation, this lowering standards dating argues that excessive migration incentives must be removed.
The harmonization lowering standards dating social systems would remove the incentive but eastern standards would be unacceptable to the EU and western standards unaffordable to the CEEC. Apart from the lack of both normative and political tenability of this rationale, its real-world relevance may be limited or offset by other factors affecting the choice of destination.
Among these are the proximity to the home country, labor market opportunities, or the existence of ethnic colonies. Hence, the practical relevance of this challenge is less definite than the economic logic suggests. However, the issue does have a political dimension that may be much more important. Even the potential of net benefits for immigrants may increase resistance to the redistributionist element in welfare state arrangements already visible in the social stigmatization of the unemployed and people depending on welfare transfers.
Such sentiments may be expressed in increasing popularity not only of parties rallying against welfare redistribution but also of xenophobic movements and parties fighting against immigration as such. But again, existing evidence does not necessarily support such a prediction. Although the northeastern districts of Austria are expected to be most strongly affected by the admission of the CEE countries and this process is already visiblethe popularity of the FPÖ in that region is clearly below its nationwide average[ 3 ].
Experience has also shown that a number of guest workers in Germany and Austria move back to their home countries once they retire. So it is not at all clear that the net balance between contributions lowering standards dating benefits should turn out to be negative for lowering standards dating EU members. All in all, the effects of enlargement on the financing of European welfare states seem to be limited by the relatively small size of the expected shifts given the current size of the western European welfare states.
lower - traduzione in Tedesco - dizionario Inglese-Tedesco di Langenscheidt
But even small shifts may have a large impact if they can be instrumentalized in a political controversy. In particular, the coverage of welfare systems may be negatively affected, and the redistributionist element of the welfare state may be reduced to the detriment of those most economically disadvantaged. One might expect that such effects will be larger if conservative and xenophobic parties jointly push for welfare state retrenchment.
Therefore it is important to acknowledge the politically disrupting potential of this challenge, particularly in those countries that are currently the preferred destination of migrants, even though the real significance of migration is open to doubt and its current impact limited.
What impact might enlargement have on the development of EU-level social policy? One might argue that enlargement will increase the differences in social law and policy to such extent that it will become impossible to agree either on a common framework or on common standards at a level acceptable to the countries endowed with a well-developed welfare state.
Erhöhung des Lebensstandards - Translation into English - examples German | Reverso Context
However, there is less disparity between the traditions and legacies than one might think. Like the EU countries, CEE countries are characterized by more or less encompassing state intervention in the areas of welfare, but also in many policy areas connected to social policy.
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During communist rule, most CEE countries developed social security systems that cushioned practically all risks from the cradle to the grave for the bekanntschaften abkürzungen majority of their citizens.
These systems were functional within the framework of a planned economy, but soon reached their limits during the transformation to the principles of market economies.
One core problem is a shortage of funds, aggravated by austerity measures and a growing shadow economy as well lowering standards dating by widespread tax evasion that reduces social security contributions and tax receipts.
Other core problems are unclear responsibilities in the administration, and an overcapacity of facilities and personnel that limit efficiency and quality, particularly in health care European Parliament Thus, the welfare states of the CEE countries face the consequences of underfunding and the ensuing development of welfare provision via informal means.
Although all CEEC governments are working to adjust their welfare systems to the exigencies of the market system, it remains to be seen how successful these varying reform efforts will be Deacon ; Lowering standards dating Parliament ; Heller and Keller Despite the efforts of the CEE countries to attract FDI by low capital taxation, none of them seem to be headed toward a deliberate neuwied partnersuche of social dumping.
This is manifest in the reliance on payroll taxes to an extent similar to the EU countries Deacon Lowering standards dating to the EU, which implies entry into the EMU, will certainly not relieve the CEEC governments from austerity policies, even if they do meet the Maastricht convergence criteria. The budgetary restraints will remain while these countries adjust to the acquis of the EU, including EU social standards.
But given the existing EU standards, the ambivalent scenario for improving welfare provision in the CEEC suggested by the tension between ongoing budgetary restraints and the need to attain EU standards will affect the current state of EU social policy less than future developments.